In the previous sections characteristics of the ‘links’, ‘site’ and ‘situation’ have been analysed. In this section interesting results will be discussed, in relation to the four low-cost carrier types, and an attempt will be made to answer the question to what extend one can speak of four different types.

Table 23, Overview 'links' characteristics
Characteristic LCC charter   LCC full-service   LCC original   LCC regional  
Distance ++ +- +- --
Density ++ +- +- --
Frequency -- +- +- ++
Connectivity ++ - + --
Concentration - ++ + --
Network development ++ +- + +
Geographical direction B-C A-A (B-C, D-D) A-A (A-C) C-C (A-A, B-B)

Table 23 gives a schematic presentation of the ‘link’ characteristics based on the results from the analysis. In this case the LCC charter type corresponds with the hypothetical model. According to this model the LCC charter type flies on long distances, with a low frequency and large capacity. The connectivity is high and the dominant direction goes from North to South, aimed at tourist destinations. These characteristics appear to correspond with the different results from the analysis. Looking at the development over time, the connectivity of the LCC charter type appears to grow to the other LCC types. The average distance remained long and the traffic per airport relatively low. Characteristics of the hypothetical LCC full-service type did showed op in the results of the analysis. Overall the LCC full-service results where almost similar with the results of the LCC original type. The different LCC original type has results somewhere between the LCC charter and LCC regional type. Compared to the LCC charter type is has a shorter average distance, density, and connectivity. The flight frequency is higher. When looking at the direction it is somewhat striking it remains in Great Britain and at the tourist areas around the Mediterranean Sea. The hypothetical model of the LCC regional type corresponds with the results of the analysis. They operate on short distances with a low density and frequency. The connectivity of the network and concentration are low. The dominant directions remain within the regions.

Table 24, Overview 'site' characteristics
Characteristic LCC charter   LCC full-service   LCC original   LCC regional  
Turn-around time -- +- +- ++
Density - +- + +
Connectivity ++ +- +- --
Hierarchy p:6 s:27 t:67 p:18 s:32 t:50 p:7 s:25 t:68 p:14 s:29 t:57

An overview of the ‘site’ characteristics and their results are presented in table 24. When looking at the approached turn-around time, the LCC regional type has the shortest turn-around time, and the LCC charter type the longest time. This is possible related to the used aircraft type. In the hypothetical model it is suggested the LCC full-service type, and to a lesser extend the LCC regional type, operate from hubs. This is partly in line with the results of the airport hierarchy, in which relatively more primary airports can be found within their networks compared to the other LCC types. The results of the density and connectivity are somewhat similar with the results of the ‘links’ characteristics.

Table 25, Overview 'situation' characteristics
Characteristic LCC charter   LCC full-service   LCC original   LCC regional  
Potential market:        
  Population density + ++ +- --
  Gross domestic product + - + -
  Tourism ++ - + --

The ‘situation’ characteristics are summarized in table 25. The results support the hypothetical model which states the LCC charter type flies on tourist areas. The gross domestic product (GDP) per seat is high for the LCC charter and LCC original type. Per region the LCC regional type has the highest GDP, per seat the lowest. An explanation for this can be the market of the LCC regional type is more saturated compared to the market for the other LCC types. The LCC full-service type operates on areas with relatively the highest population densities.

Competition had not in all cases specifically been analysed for each low-cost carrier type and therefore has been excluded on the previous summarized tables. Overall there is competition on certain routes. The doubling routes indicate competition between low-cost carriers largely takes place between carriers of the same LCC type. High potential competition at airports based on the number of surrounding airports within a certain distance is especially high in areas where low-cost carriers first arrived and developed in Europe, Great Britain and West Europe. These regions also have a relatively high income and population density.

In conclusion the results of the characteristics of the LCC charter, LCC original, and LCC regional type largely correspond with the expectations of the hypothetical model. The LCC full-service type has the smallest number of low-cost carriers which differ strongly with each other. Because of this it is difficult to formulate general conclusion based on the results of this LCC type.

The hypothetical model also formulates different dynamical development stages that can be recognizable in the development of a carrier. General conclusions are difficult to formulate at the level of LCC type. It appears the different LCC types develop relatively consequent to each other, the LCC charter type grows more to the other three types. The dynamical stages are more visible at the individual low-cost carrier level. In the next section four low-cost carriers, one of each type, will be analysed more thoroughly and will be explained how these different stages are visible in the network development of the selected carriers. The network development of all individual carriers can be found here.