# Analysis

## Site

In this section the airport characteristics will be analysed. Subsequently these are (click on a link to jump to the related subject):

• Turn-around time
• Density
• Connectivity
• Hierarchy
• Competition
• ### Turn-around time

The turn-around time itself is hard to analyse because it is difficult to obtain the right data. Reasoning a short turn-around time means the aircraft is earlier off the ground and in this way can fly relatively more flights, the turn-around time can be roughly estimated by looking at the flight frequency per distance or time unit. Because it relates to the distance analysis of the links, this will not thoroughly be discussed in this section.

 Table 16, Approached turn-around time, 2005-09 LCC type Number of flights per 500 kilometres Number of flights per 60 minutes Charter 1,2 1,6 Full-service 4,4 5,9 Original 4,8 5,4 Regional 12,6 12,7 Source: OAG (2005)

Table 16 gives an overview of the approached turn-around time aggregated at the low-cost carrier type level. It appears the LCC charter type has the longest turn-around time, the LCC full-service and LCC original type have almost similar results, finally the LCC regional type has the shortest turn-around time.

When looking at the individual low-cost carrier level (information can be found and downloaded here), it appears Blue1, LCC full-service type, has a very high value of 12 flights per 500 kilometres compared to the other carriers of the LCC full-service type. This is the same with FlyMe and Dauair, both LCC original types. Leaving out these extremes would lower the average of the LCC full-service type as a whole, compared to the LCC original type. The results of the turn-around time analysis are a logical consequence of the earlier found differences in flight frequencies en flight distance of the LCC types.

### Density

In a previous part the density of the different routes per carrier have been analysed. This section will focus on the density per airport. This has been visualized for each of the low-cost carrier types with proportional symbols. The density is measured in number of seats.

Figure 34 and figure 35 show for each low-cost carrier type the number of seats per airport. The LCC charter traffic seems mostly located in Germany (departure) and in Spain (destination). Great Britain is presented to a lesser degree. The LCC full-service traffic is less centralized compared to the LCC charter type. Note that the LCC full-service type is also located in East Europe and Scandinavia.

 Figure 34, Number of seats per airport per LCC type, 2005-09 LCC charter LCC full-service Source: OAG (2005), Insert: Canary Islands, click image to enlarge

The LCC original and LCC regional type are presented in figure 35. Overall the LCC original type is spatially dispersed. In Great Britain this type is relatively strongly represented, this is also the region in which European low-cost carriers where first active. The LCC regional type is relatively strong located around the Mediterranean Sea and dispersed around Scandinavia.

 Figure 35, Number of seats per airport per LCC type, 2005-09 LCC original LCC regional Source: OAG (2005), Insert: Canary Islands, click image to enlarge

Figure 36 combines figure 34 and figure 35 and gives a better overview of the low-cost carrier type shares per airport. Note that by clicking on the image a larger version will be loaded.

 Figure 36, Low-cost carrier shares per type per airport, 2005-09 Source: OAG (2005), Insert: Canary Islands, click image to enlarge

### Connectivity

The tables below give an overview of the distance and flight frequency. Compared to the earlier results of the same characteristics at the low-cost carrier networks, the results do not show anything new. Although some values per airport are higher compared to the results per network or link, the differences do correspond with the earlier results.

 Table 17, Route distance in kilometres per airport, 2005-09 LCC type Minimum Maximum Total Average Standard deviation Charter 224 3.422 402.184 1.840 556 Full-service 122 3.222 179.314 1.182 326 Original 203 3.244 561.844 1.035 408 Regional 146 2.457 146.443 778 477 Source: OAG (2005)

 Table 18, Route distance in kilometres per airport, 2005-09 LCC type Minimum Maximum Total Average Standard deviation Charter 1 342 4.426 13,5 11,0 Full-service 1 214 2.730 24,8 18,6 Original 1 927 19.311 24,3 18,3 Regional 1 572 8.247 34,6 16,4 Source: OAG (2005)

### Hierarchy

Airports can be divided into different classes. In this case primary, secondary, and tertiary airports will be distinguished. The major hub-airports, which play a crucial part in full-service carrier networks, belong to the primary airports. The larger and smaller regional airports belong to the secondary and tertiary airports.

 Table 19, Airport hierarchy, number of seats, 2005-09 LCC type Primary, total % Secondary, total % Tertiary, total % Charter 48.840 6,2 210.936 26,9 524.895 66,9 Full-service 55.149 17,9 98.794 32,1 154.096 50,0 Original 147.944 6,6 564.054 25,1 1.535.107 68,3 Regional 124.154 14,1 259.570 29,4 498.348 56,5 Source: OAG (2005)

Table 19 gives an overview of the absolute and relative number of seats per low-cost carrier type that belongs to the primary, secondary, and tertiary airports. Most primary airports can be found at the LCC full-service and LCC regional type. Secondary and tertiary airports can be found at all low-cost carrier types. The LCC original type and LCC charter type are strongest presented at the tertiary airports.

When looking at the primary, secondary and tertiary airports at the individual low-cost carrier level some interesting differences can be found (information can be found and downloaded here). Striking is the difference between the share of primary airports at the different low-cost carriers. Ryanair, one of the largest original low-cost carriers in Europe does not operate on primary airports regardless of their large network. Spanair, a LCC regional type, has almost 40 percent of its total capacity operating on primary airports. Other extremes are Virgin Express, Helvetic Airways, and Transavia Airlines.

### Competition

In a previous part it has been discussed that there is potential competition between different low-cost carriers, based on the fact there are multiple low-cost carriers operating on the same route. This section will look at the share of low-cost carriers at an airport compared to other low-cost carriers and full-service carriers.

With help of the Herfindahl index (HHI) the market share of low-cost carriers on an airport can be analysed. It is an indication on the share of low-cost carriers which operate on the same airport measured in number of seats. Other carriers besides low-cost carriers have been left out. When a low-cost carrier has relatively more seats on an airport compared to the other low-cost carriers, it will have a high HHI value. When low-cost carriers have around the same amount of seats at an airport they will have a low HHI value.

 Figure 37, Low-cost carrier shares per airport, 2005-09 Source: OAG (2005), Insert: Canary Islands, click image to enlarge

Figure 37 gives an overview of the HHI values per airport. It appears there is on most airports one dominant low-cost carrier. Low cost carriers at airports around the Mediterranean Sea have mostly the same share at an airport. When using the different regions of figure 32, an explanation could be that there are relatively a small number of carriers active in North and East Europe. In West Europe and Great Britain there are more regional airports located relatively close to each other, which makes it possible for low-cost carriers to have their ‘own’ airport. The destination airports around the Mediterranean Sea are used by many low-cost carriers, which makes it harder for low-cost carrier to be dominant on an airport.

 Figure 38, Low-cost carrier versus full-service carrier shares per airport, 2005-09 Source: OAG (2005), Insert: Canary Islands, click image to enlarge

Figure 38 shows for each airport the share between the number of low-cost carriers and full-service carriers. Data is presented proportionally and non-proportionally, in the last case the shares at smaller airports are more visible. Full-service carriers and low-cost carriers both operate on primary and secondary airports, this is contradictory with expectations from literature, based on the situation as is in the U.S.A. Airports, on which only a low-cost carrier operates, are smaller airports, mostly located in Great Britain, North and West Europe. Full-service carriers also operate on smaller airports in tourist areas.